At the head of the judiciary is the Supreme Court, a collegiate judiciary based in the capital of the Republic, composed of twenty-one members called ministers, one of whom is the President, who is appointed by their colleagues and lasts two years in office. Ministers are appointed by the President of the Republic, who chooses them from a list of five, each proposed by the Supreme Court and with the approval of the Senate.
The 5 members of the Supreme Court must have a legal background, be non-judicial attorneys, have a professional title of at least fifteen years, have distinguished professional or academic practice, and meet the other requirements specified in the relevant constitutional organ law.
The Supreme Court is responsible for the instruction, enforcement and economic control of all courts in the country with the exception of the Constitutional Court, the Election Review Court and the regional electoral courts.
In accordance with the provisions of the Organic Code of the Courts: The Supreme Court shall be treated with excellence, and the Courts of Appeal with distinguished honor. Each of the members of these courts and scribes shall receive the salary of Signoria.
It functions divided into specialized spaces or fully, and can assume normal or extraordinary functions. The first is exercised by three specialized Chambers: First Chamber or Civil Chamber, Second Chamber or Criminal Chamber, Third Chamber or Chamber for Constitutional Affairs and Administrative Disputes. The extraordinary, through four chambers: civil, criminal, constitutional and labor, all governed by the act of agreement that distributes the matters known to the chambers of the Supreme Court during ordinary and extraordinary operations. extraordinary functioning, it is up to the court itself to seize it. The determination of operation in whole or in specialized rooms is prescribed by law depending on the situation under consideration.
For example, the Court will operate in chambers behind the scenes on appeals; formal legal remedies where required by law; and annulment actions introduced into the new criminal procedural system in cases specified by law; Amparo remedies and protectants; reviewing resources and decisions falling under Chapter Complaints; legal remedies, with the exception of the application of disciplinary measures falling within the competence of the plenary courts; Means of accounting complaints against culpable or abusive second-instance judgments with the sole aim of eliminating the evil behind them immediately; among other.
In its full capacity, the Supreme Court hears appeals of violations against Senators and Representatives; Appeals in a mobility procedure heard in the first instance by the Courts of Appeal or the President of the Supreme Court; the application for loss of citizenship; the exercise of disciplinary, economic and administrative powers and the reports that the President of the Republic may request on any point of the administration of justice and of which he is undoubtedly aware; He must also communicate the proposed amendments to the Constitutional Law relating to the organization and powers of the courts and other matters of which the laws expressly entrust him with full knowledge.
Cases can be billed or after hearing the case, according to the President of the Supreme Court, to participate in the sending of the daily report and the publication of the decrees or orders of simple justification, as well as the assignment of the cases to each of the specialized Chambers according to those in their jurisdiction falling matters, being able to send - at the beginning of the hearings and before hearing the causes of the table - the cases that must be charged to study the projects of rates and their agreement